springboot自动装配之spi机制解析

1.什么是spi

Java里有两种spi,一种是jdk自带的spi机制,也就是服务发现机制,但是这里的服务发现和我们分布式系统上的服务发现是不一样的,另一个就是springboot的spi机制,都是一种服务扩展机制。

2.spring的spi机制

我们面试的时候,会经常被问到springboot的工作原理,这时候会有人回答了,这个问题我知道,是使用的@SpringApplication注解,然后使用@EnableAutoConfiguration以及@ComponentScan自动装配,注解@EnableAutoConfiguration使用了@Import加载,最后使用了SpringFactoriesLoader反射出maven中META-INF下spring.factories。说的很对,的确是这样的。

3.SpringFactoriesLoader源码解析

public static final String FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION = "META-INF/spring.factories";
 

    public static <T> List<T> loadFactories(Class<T> factoryType, @Nullable ClassLoader classLoader) {
        Assert.notNull(factoryType, "'factoryType' must not be null");
        ClassLoader classLoaderToUse = classLoader;
        if (classLoader == null) {
            classLoaderToUse = SpringFactoriesLoader.class.getClassLoader();
        }
 
        List<String> factoryImplementationNames = loadFactoryNames(factoryType, classLoaderToUse);
        if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace("Loaded [" + factoryType.getName() + "] names: " + factoryImplementationNames);
        }
 
        List<T> result = new ArrayList(factoryImplementationNames.size());
        Iterator var5 = factoryImplementationNames.iterator();
 
        while(var5.hasNext()) {
            String factoryImplementationName = (String)var5.next();
            result.add(instantiateFactory(factoryImplementationName, factoryType, classLoaderToUse));
        }
 
        AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(result);
        return result;
    }

从上面的源码,我们可以看到首先调用了loadFactoryNames方法,获取META-INF/spring.factories下的全类名,使用的方法也就是加载了META-INF/spring.factorie下的类名。

public static List<String> loadFactoryNames(Class<?> factoryType, @Nullable ClassLoader classLoader) {
        String factoryTypeName = factoryType.getName();
        return (List)loadSpringFactories(classLoader).getOrDefault(factoryTypeName, Collections.emptyList());
    }
 
    private static Map<String, List<String>> loadSpringFactories(@Nullable ClassLoader classLoader) {
        MultiValueMap<String, String> result = (MultiValueMap)cache.get(classLoader);
        if (result != null) {
            return result;
        } else {
            try {
                Enumeration<URL> urls = classLoader != null ? classLoader.getResources("META-INF/spring.factories") : ClassLoader.getSystemResources("META-INF/spring.factories");
                LinkedMultiValueMap result = new LinkedMultiValueMap();
 
                while(urls.hasMoreElements()) {
                    URL url = (URL)urls.nextElement();
                    UrlResource resource = new UrlResource(url);
                    Properties properties = PropertiesLoaderUtils.loadProperties(resource);
                    Iterator var6 = properties.entrySet().iterator();
 
                    while(var6.hasNext()) {
                        Entry<?, ?> entry = (Entry)var6.next();
                        String factoryTypeName = ((String)entry.getKey()).trim();
                        String[] var9 = StringUtils.commaDelimitedListToStringArray((String)entry.getValue());
                        int var10 = var9.length;
 
                        for(int var11 = 0; var11 < var10; ++var11) {
                            String factoryImplementationName = var9[var11];
                            result.add(factoryTypeName, factoryImplementationName.trim());
                        }
                    }
                }
 
                cache.put(classLoader, result);
                return result;
            } catch (IOException var13) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unable to load factories from location [META-INF/spring.factories]", var13);
            }
        }
    }

然后可以看见,在loadFactories方法里调用了

result.add(instantiateFactory(factoryImplementationName, factoryType, classLoaderToUse));

这里根据全类名反射了这个类,可以看下这个方法的源码。

   private static <T> T instantiateFactory(String factoryImplementationName, Class<T> factoryType, ClassLoader classLoader) {
        try {
            Class<?> factoryImplementationClass = ClassUtils.forName(factoryImplementationName, classLoader);
            if (!factoryType.isAssignableFrom(factoryImplementationClass)) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Class [" + factoryImplementationName + "] is not assignable to factory type [" + factoryType.getName() + "]");
            } else {
                return ReflectionUtils.accessibleConstructor(factoryImplementationClass, new Class[0]).newInstance();
            }
        } catch (Throwable var4) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unable to instantiate factory class [" + factoryImplementationName + "] for factory type [" + factoryType.getName() + "]", var4);
        }
    }

4.springboot如何加载SpringFactoriesLoader

我们继续看源码。在SpringApplication源码中可以看见,调用了getSpringFactoriesInstances方法

	public ConfigurableApplicationContext run(String... args) {
		StopWatch stopWatch = new StopWatch();
		stopWatch.start();
		ConfigurableApplicationContext context = null;
		Collection<SpringBootExceptionReporter> exceptionReporters = new ArrayList<>();
		configureHeadlessProperty();
		SpringApplicationRunListeners listeners = getRunListeners(args);
		listeners.starting();
		try {
			ApplicationArguments applicationArguments = new DefaultApplicationArguments(args);
			ConfigurableEnvironment environment = prepareEnvironment(listeners, applicationArguments);
			configureIgnoreBeanInfo(environment);
			Banner printedBanner = printBanner(environment);
			context = createApplicationContext();
			exceptionReporters = getSpringFactoriesInstances(SpringBootExceptionReporter.class,
					new Class[] { ConfigurableApplicationContext.class }, context);
			prepareContext(context, environment, listeners, applicationArguments, printedBanner);
			refreshContext(context);
			afterRefresh(context, applicationArguments);
			stopWatch.stop();
			if (this.logStartupInfo) {
				new StartupInfoLogger(this.mainApplicationClass).logStarted(getApplicationLog(), stopWatch);
			}
			listeners.started(context);
			callRunners(context, applicationArguments);
		}
		catch (Throwable ex) {
			handleRunFailure(context, ex, exceptionReporters, listeners);
			throw new IllegalStateException(ex);
		}
 
		try {
			listeners.running(context);
		}
		catch (Throwable ex) {
			handleRunFailure(context, ex, exceptionReporters, null);
			throw new IllegalStateException(ex);
		}
		return context;
	}

可以看见,在 getSpringFactoriesInstances方法中调用了SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames获取了全类名,使用createSpringFactoriesInstances方法反射bean的实例,并在上述run方法中加载到Spring容器中。

private <T> Collection<T> getSpringFactoriesInstances(Class<T> type, Class<?>[] parameterTypes, Object... args) {
		ClassLoader classLoader = getClassLoader();
		// Use names and ensure unique to protect against duplicates
		Set<String> names = new LinkedHashSet<>(SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames(type, classLoader));
		List<T> instances = createSpringFactoriesInstances(type, parameterTypes, classLoader, args, names);
		AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(instances);
		return instances;
	}

原文:https://blog.csdn.net/pycharm_u/article/details/108196307
作者: sust_ly